NameClement Halvorson 3,19,20,21
Birth9 Dec 1853, Dyrkoll i Gjerpen, Telemark, Norway22
Immigration1855, Oconomowoc, Waukesha, Wisconsin Age: 1
Emigration10 Apr 1855, Gjerpen, Telemark, Norway23 Age: 1
Census7 Jul 1860, Oconomowoc, Waukesha, Wisconsin24 Age: 6
Census9 Jul 1870, Linden, Brown, Minnesota25 Age: 16
Census1 May 1875, Linden, Brown, Minnesota26 Age: 21
Census9 Jun 1880, Linden, Brown, Minnesota10 Age: 26
Census29 May 1885, Linden, Brown, Minnesota11 Age: 31
Census15 Jun 1895, Linden, Brown, Minnesota12 Age: 41
Census18 Jun 1900, Linden, Brown, Minnesota13 Age: 46
Census8 Jun 1905, Linden, Brown, Minnesota14 Age: 51
Census26 Apr 1910, Linden, Brown, Minnesota15 Age: 56
Census27 Feb 1920, Linden, Brown, Minnesota16 Age: 66
Census8 Apr 1930, Linden, Brown, Minnesota17 Age: 76
Residence1 Apr 1935, Linden, Brown, Minnesota27 Age: 81
Census11 Apr 1940, Linden, Brown, Minnesota27 Age: 86
Death18 May 1942, Linden, Brown, Minnesota28 Age: 88
Death MemoDeath certificate
Burial21 May 1942, Linden Lutheran Cemetery, Linden, Brown, Minnesota18
Burial MemoDeath certificate
ReligionLutheran
OccupationFarm laborer (1870), farmer (1905, 1910, 1920, 1930), town clerk, schoolteacher, retired (1940)
EducationMankato Teaching College
FatherOle Halvorson (Fjeld) (1822-1879)
Spouses
Birth26 Apr 1859, Linden, Brown, Minnesota5
Census22 Jul 1860, Linden, Brown, Minnesota6 Age: 1
Census1 Jun 1865, Linden, Brown, Minnesota7 Age: 6
Census9 Jul 1870, Linden, Brown, Minnesota8 Age: 11
Census1 May 1875, Linden, Brown, Minnesota9 Age: 16
Census9 Jun 1880, Linden, Brown, Minnesota10 Age: 21
Census29 May 1885, Linden, Brown, Minnesota11 Age: 26
Census15 Jun 1895, Linden, Brown, Minnesota12 Age: 36
Census18 Jun 1900, Linden, Brown, Minnesota13 Age: 41
Census8 Jun 1905, Linden, Brown, Minnesota14 Age: 46
Census26 Apr 1910, Linden, Brown, Minnesota15 Age: 51
Census27 Feb 1920, Linden, Brown, Minnesota16 Age: 60
Census8 Apr 1930, Linden, Brown, Minnesota17 Age: 70
Death20 Nov 1937, Linden, Brown, Minnesota5 Age: 78
Death MemoDeath certificate
Burial24 Nov 1937, Linden Lutheran Cemetery, Linden, Brown, Minnesota5,18
Burial MemoDeath certificate
ReligionLutheran
FatherPvt. Johannes Johanni (1832-1911)
MotherChristina Tarnutzer (1823-1916)
Marriage21 May 1879, Linden, Brown, Minnesota29,28
ChildrenJohn Oliver (1880-1957)
 Christina Jane (1881-1969)
 Alfred Elmer (1884-1970)
 Ella Marie (1887-1938)
 Lillian May (1889-1979)
 Edward Maurice (1891-1983)
 Cora Amelia (1895-1972)
 Willard Horace (1897-1977)
 Lucile Myrtle (1899-1991)
 Verna Florence (1902-1965)
Notes for Clement Halvorson
Gjerpen church records show that birthdate was 9 December 1853 not 10 December.30

Fritschie gives his birthdate as 10 December 1853, which is what Clement gave on his marriage license affadavit. It is also what is shown in the Linden Church records.31

Clement emigrated to America with his parents when he was about one and a half years old. He was educated in Waukesha County, Wisconsin, where they settled, and later went to Mankato Normal School after they moved to Minnesota in 1869. This is confirmed by the 1895 census which shows that he had lived in Minnesota and Linden for 26 years (since 1869). He was assisting his father on the latter's farm at the time of the 1870 census. He received his license to teach school in 1874 and taught his first term in District 20 (Linden Township). He taught there for the next seven terms. This is confirmed by the fact that he describes himself as a schoolteacher in his marriage license affadavit. Clement then taught for three years in Freeborn County (check, it possibly was Fillmore), two terms a year. He also acted as a letter-writer for many Norwegian neighbors who were unable to write.

He bought a quarter-section (160 acres) of railroad land in Linden Township in 1878, paying between $7.00 and $8.00 per acre, depending upon the quality of the land.32 He married the next year and built his home on the farm. His wife Anna also owned a farm in the township.

Clement bought two parcels of land from the St. Paul and Sioux City Railroad Company. The first parcel, purchased on 3 April 1883 for $560, consisted of 80 acres, the E 1/2 of SW 1/4, Section 15, Township 108 N., Range 30 W.33 The second parcel, purchased on 24 May 1883 for $220, consisted of 40 acres, the SE 1/4 of NW 1/4 of Section 15, Township 108 N., Range 30 W.34 He bought 40 acres from Johannes and Christina Johanni for $280 on 17 March 1884. This was the NE 1/4 of SE 1/4 of Section 15, Township 108 N., Range 30 W. 33

The Linden Lutheran Church records of his marriage confirm that he was born in Gjerpen [Norway]. They seem to say that Anne was born in Tydskland, which is strange. The witnesses were H. Halvorson and Isak Nielsen.

Clement was Brown Co., Minnesota, commissioner for 1895-1899. Linden Twp., Brown Co., Minnesota, town clerk for many years from 1881 until 1942, and was very likely the longest serving official in the nation when he retired due to ill health.

One of the organizers of the Linden-Cottownwood Creamery Company and manager of that concern from its' installation in 1894 for the next thirty-nine years. John Taylor Brown provided a copy of the letter Clement sent to his son John when sending a stock certificate for the company on 28 November 1908. This is a business note with no personal correspondence.35 He served as the treasurer for the Minnesota State Dairymen's Association.

They had Hans Nelson working for them on the farm in 1900 and Ole J. Lahnbakken, a painter, was boarding with them.

The 1940 census stated that he had been in the same house in 1935. His grandson Claire was head of the household at that time.

Clement's farm was owned by Melvin Ulrich in 1974.3

Hanska Herald, 19 November 1915:
"Halvorson Fire.

Regarding the origin of the fire which completely destroyed Clement Halvorson's farm home last week, little has been learned aside from the fact that it started, in all probability, from the kitchen stove. No one was in the house at the time, Mrs. Halvorson being outside for a period of fifteen or twenty minutes and when she returned the kitchen was full of smoke. Mrs. Halvorson then went to the telephone, but could not remain there on account of the heat, and had to run over to Morrow's place to telephone to Mr. Halvorson who was at Rasmus Jacobson's place where he had met J. S. Hanson, who was hauling some butter for the Linden creamery.
Mr. Halvorson at once started for home. Willie Jacobson also started on horseback and when he arrived Iver Ives and Ole Johnson were there. A few moments later Mr. Halvorson also arrived. The fire by this time had gained such headway that only a few pieces of furniture and the town and creamery records could be saved.
All of the Linden town records except the latest birth and death record, and all the important creamery books and records were saved. Mr. Halvorson's private library was entirely destroyed, as well as all the clothing, personal effects and household furniture, save the organ, couch, three chair, a book stand and rug.
Insurance on the house and contents amounts to $900 which was satisfactorily adjusted Monday. Mr. and Mrs. Halvorson are now living in the Linden town hall. A temporary building will be put up for this winter's use and in the spring Mr. Halvorson will erect a new residence.
The community sincerely regrets that Mr. and Mrs. Halvorson and family are compelled to sustain such a financial loss especially at this time of the year, but the circumstances might have been worse, and a home can always be replaced."20

The fire is mentioned in Fritschie's history of Brown County, Minnesota, but I had misinterpreted that as referring to Ole Halvorson's home. The entry in the pocket diary of his son-in-law Theodore P. Laingen which reads: "A cold day, fencing corn field HGS, to Halvorson a. m. house burnt."36

New Ulm Journal, 24 May 1929:
"Golden Wedding
Mr. and Mrs. Clement Halverson
Observe Anniversary

On Sunday, May 19th, about 350 relatives, friends, and neighbors were entertained at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Clement Halvorson, in honor of their 50th wedding anniversary.
A program was given consisting of selections by the Larson orchestra, music by Mrs. Irene Schaleben Cahill of Janesville, talks by Rev. Evenson of St. James, Rev. Larson of Hanska, and Herman Dahl of Linden. Mrs. J. A. Helling of Linden sang 'Silver Threads Among the Gold.' Messages from people unable to attend were read.
Mr. and Mrs. Halvorson were the recipients of numerous gifts, which included a gold pendant, and a pen and pencil set from the children. A purse of silver was presented by Rev. Larson, in behalf of the neighbors and friends. Mr. Halvorson responded with a few well-chosen words.
A buffet lunch was served, the table being decorated with Ophelia roses, ivory tapers tied with yellow tulle, and the bride and groom's cake.
Mr. Halverson was born in Norway, but immigrated at a very early age with his parents to Wisconsin, where he spent his youth. When he was a young lad, his parents moved to Minnesota and settled on the shores of Rice lake, Linden township, Brown county. He attended State Teacher's college at Mankato, and taught in the rural schools of Brown and Fillmore counties for several year [sic].
Mrs. Halverson was born and reared very near her present home in Linden. She was formerly Anna Johanni.
On May 20, 1879, they were married, at her home, by Rev. L. E. Green, now of Minneapolis. They moved to their home where they have resided since.
Mr. Halvorson was one of the organizers of the Linden-Cottonwood Creamery Co. in 1894, and has been manager and secretary since. He also has been very active in township affairs, having been clerk for 37 years. He was also treasurer of the State Dairyman's association, and county commissioner for four years.
Mr. and Mrs. Halvorson are still well and active. They are parents of ten children, namely, John, of Raleigh, N. C.; Mrs. Theodore Laingen (Christina), Mrs. Sam Harbo (Ella), and Alfred, of Linden; Mrs. Verne Lewis (Lillian), and Mrs. George Gronewald (Cora), of Lewisville; Edward, of Grenora, N. D.; Willard, of Hanska; Lucille, of Minneapolis, and Verna, at home. They were all present, except John and Edward, who were unable to attend.
After the reception, the two little sons of Mr. and Mrs. George Gronewald of Lewisville, were baptized by Rev. Evenson of St. James.
Mr. and Mrs. Halverson are the grandparents of 27 children.
Those from a distance, who attended were: Mr. and Mrs. William Schaleben, Minneapolis; Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Cahill and family, Janesville, Minn.; Mr. and Mrs. Otto Olson, Mr. and Mrs. McDonald and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Ole Hanson, Mr. and Mrs. Simon Olson and family, Mr. and Mrs. Iver Mikkelson and family, Jacob Byro, Mankato; Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Haugen and Mrs. Mary Haugen, Tracy; Mr. and Mrs. Hans Holte and daughter, Rev. and Mrs. N. Evenson and family, St. James; Mr. and Mrs. Carl Olson, Albion; Mr. and Mrs. Fred Christiansen and family, Lewis Halverson, County Superintendent and Mrs. R. B. Kennedy, New Ulm; Mr. and Mrs. William Larson and family, Mr. and Mrs. Evan W. Jones and daughter, Peter Jacobson, Julius Jacobson and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Carl Wilson and daughter, Lake Crystal."20

Hanska Herald, 18 March 1932:
"Clement Halvorson Starting
His Fifty-First Year
As Town Clerk of
Linden

Clement Halvorson of Linden who has served his township faithfully for fifty years as its Town Clerk, when he was first elected in 1881, was again elected at its regular township election last week for tow years and is now starting on his fifty-first year.
At the meeting a motion was made and a rising vote was taken in appreciation of the many years of faithful service Mr. Halvorson has given the Township.
Mr. Halvorson came to Brown Co. in 1869, and attended the Mankato Teaching Colleege later teaching school in rural districts for several years. He was married in 1879 and settled on his present farm in Linden where he has made his home since.
Mr. Halvorson was one of the organizers of the Linden & Cottonwood Creamery Company which was incorporated in 1894 and was at that time elected Secretary and General Manager at its first meeting and has held that office since. He also served as County Commissioner from this District for four years and is not seventy-nine years old."20

New Ulm Journal, 17 October 1938:
"Clement Halvorson Serves His
Township 56 Years As Clerk

Probably no one in Minnesota and perhaps no one in the United States has been clerk of his township as long as Clement Halvorson who has completed his 56th year as Linden town clerk. Last spring he was reelected for a 2-year term and he hopes to complete that making a record of 58 years of service to his township.
Clement Halvorson, the grand old man of Linden township, has lived in that communtiy for 69 years and on the same farm he owns beside the Linden town hall for more than 59 years. He came to that community as a boy from Waukesha county, Wis., with his parents in 1869. Shortly after this he attended the Normal school at Mankato and then moved to the farm he now occupies in 1879. He has lived on this farm without moving for nearly 60 years. Mrs. Halverson died last November and this was first break in a family of twelve.
During all the years Mr. Halverson has lived in Linden township he has been friend, advisor and councilor to the people of that community. For many years in the early days the Norwegian people would ask him for advice. He wrote many of their letters for them and helped them make their way in a land which was new to them. For more than a half century he has kept the respect and affection of the community in which he has lived so long as a fine citizen.
Something of a rebel or an insurgent at heart Clement Halvorson will be 85 years young in December, today laughs when he considers his political background. He claims he cast his last straight Republican ballot in 1889 for Garfield and has been doing his own thinking ever since. As a result he chuckles today when he recalls how often he has scratched his ballots and the number of lost causes he has supported in his time.
As a young man he was attracted to the Farmers Alliance, and later to the Populist party. Next, he swung to Teddy Roosevelt and the Bull Moose movement and he has voted a pretty independent ticket ever since. He also has been active in farm affairs and for many years was connected with the state dairyman's association.
Quite active for his years he has an unusually clear mind and does a great deal of reading. He still drives the car himself and gets around with little difficulty."20

New Ulm Journal, 11 March 1942:
"Veteran Retires

Clement Halvorson, above [referring to portrait with article], clerk of Linden township for 60 years, declined reelection at the annual township election Tuesday.
Mr. Halvorson, now 88 years old, has not been in the best of health recently, in addition to being injured in falls, and said it was time for new hands to take over.
His successor in the job is H. E. Abraham, proprietor of the Linden store.
It is doubtful if any civic official in the nation has a record of service exceeding that of Mr. Halvorson."

The text of the resolution on his retirement:

" = Resolution =
Whereas - Due to old age - hard hearing - and failing health- Mr. Clement Halverson - our esteemed and respectful Town Clerk is about to retire as Town Clerk at the close of this annual town meeting, after serving faithfully as Clerk for 60 years.
Whereas - He is no doubt the only living Town Clerk in the state, and Perhaps in the entire United States who has held the Office of Town Clerk for such a long Period of Time.
Whereas - During the long service in this Town Office His ability and honesty has resulted greatly to bring this township to rise from a pioneer township to one of the outstanding ones in the county.
Whereas - He has at all times gladly and cheerfully rendered helpful and effective services and opinion to the people of the township - alwasy alert and ready to promote improvements etc. for which he was so well fitted out for.
Therefore be it Resolved - That this 1942 annual Town Meeting do hereby show their respectful appreciation to the honorable retiring Town Clerk Mr. Clement Halvorson by giving him a standing Vote of Thanks for long and faithful service.
Be it further Resolved - That a copy of this resolution be handed to Mr. Halvorson. One copy mailed to the Hanska Herald for publication. Also, that this resolution be incorporated in the minues of this 1942 annual Town Meeting."20

New Ulm Journal, 18 May 1942:

"Halverson, 60
Years Linden
Clerk, Dies

Pioneer Came From
Wisconsin With
Family in 1869

Probably no one in Minnesota and perhaps no one in the United States has served as clerk of his township as long as Clement Halverson, Linden township, who died on the Halverson farm at 3 a. m. today.
Mr. Halvorson was ill but several weeks and his death was unexpected. This grand old man of Linden township, who was born in Norway, Dec. 10, 1853, and came with his parents Mr. and Mrs. Ole Halverson, to America, when a year old, had watched with interest the transformation of Brown county frrom a prairie wilderness to one of the most productive and prosperous sections of the country.

Town Clerk 60 Years

Mr. Halverson completed 60 years in service as clerk of Linden township and perhaps held the record of the whole country. He had lived in the Linden community for 73 years and on the same farm he owns beside the Linden town hall for more than 63 years.
He came with his parents when a boy from Waukesha county, Wis., in 1869, and they settled in Linden township. Mrs. Halverson died in November, 1937, and that was the first break in the family.
During all the years Mr. Halverson has lived in Linden township he has been friend, advisor and councilor to the people of that community. For many years in the early days the Norwegian people would ask him for advice. He wrote many of their letters for them in a land which was new to them. For more than a half century he has held the respect and affection of the community in which he lived so long as a fine citizen.
Something of a rebel or an insurgent at heart Clement Halverson laughed when he considered his political background. He claimed he cast his last straight Republican ballot in 1880 for Garfield and has been doing his own thinking ever since. As a result he chuckled when he recalled how often he scratched his ballots and the number of lost causes he supported in his time.
As a young man he was attracted to the Farmers Alliance, and later to the Populist party. Next he swung to Teddy Roosevelt and the Bull Moose movement and he voted a pretty independent ticket ever since. He also had been active in farm affairs and for many years was connected with the state dairymen's association.
Quite active for his years he had an unusually clear mind and did a great deal of reading.

Nine Children

The following nine children survive Mr. Halverson: John Halverson, Rawleigh [sic], N. C.; Mrs. Theo. Laingen, Linden; Alfred Halverson, Linden; Mrs. Verne Lewis, Lewisville; Edward Halverson, Grenora, N. D.; Mrs. George Gronewald, Lewisville; Miss Lucille Halverson, nurse at University Hospital, Minneapolis; Willard Halverson, Hanska, and Mrs. Ernest Asleson, Woden, Ia.
Mr. Halverson's brothers and sisters all preceded him in death.
There are 30 grandchildren and eight great grandchildren."20

Unspecified newspaper, __ May 1942, same text also from Hanska Herald under different headline:

"Linden Pioneer
Buried Thursday

This community was saddened by the death of one of its beloved pioneers, Clement Halvorson, who passed away at his home in Linden Monday, May 18 after an illness of several weeks. Death was caused by old age.
Funeral services were held on Thursday afternoon from the farm house and at the Linden Lutheran church. He was laid to rest in the Linden cemetery beside his wife, who passed away Nov. 20, 1937.
Clement Halvorson was born December 10, 1853 in Telemark, Norway, and came with his parents, Ole and and Johanna Marie Halvorson to this country in 1855 landing in Quebec, Canada. They settled in Wanhesa [sic] county, Wisconsin where they lived until 1869 when they came to Minnesota, settling in Linden township.
Clement was next to the youngest in a family of seven children. He had received a good common school education while in Wisconsin and upon coming to Linden entered the Normal school at Mankato where he qualified as a teacher in the public schools and received his certificate.
In 1874 he taught his first school term, in district 20 in Linden. He taught in this school for several successive terms and later taught in Freeborn county for two years.
In 1878 he bought a quarter section of railroad land near the center of the township which constituted his home until death.
May 21, 1879 he was united in marriage [sic] to Anna Johanni and they made their home on his farm. They were blessed with ten children.
Mr. Halvorson was one of the organizers of the Linden-Cottonwood Creamery which was established in 1894 and served as its manager for 39 years. In 1892 he was elected to the board of County Commissioners and served until 1897.
In 1881 he was elected clerk of Linden township and served for 60 years, which is believed to be the longest time any one has served in that capacity in the whole country. He was active in politics.
During all the years Mr. Halvorson has lived in Linden township he has been friend, advisor and councilor to the people of that community. For many years in the early days the Norwegian people would ask him for advice. He wrote many of their letters for them. For more than a half century he has held the respect and affection of the community in which he lived so long as a fine citizen.
He leaves to mourn his death the following children: John Halvorson, Raleigh, N.C., Mrs. Theo. Laingen, Linden; Alfred Halvorson, Linden; Mrs. Verne Lewis, Lewisville; Edward Halvorson, Grenora, N.D.; Mrs. George Gronewald, Lewisville; Lucille Halvorson, nurse at University Hospital, Minneapolis; Willard Halvorson, Hanska, and Mrs. Ernest Asleson, Woden, Ia., also 28 grand children and 14 great grandchildren. His brothers and sisters all preceded him in death. - [from] Hanska Herald"20

Gladys Lewis recounts some details she learned: "Clement liked to drink a bit and we did hear a few stories about his escapades. One of the cousins (Rose [Rose Laingen Hobart]) said he always had a bottle in his desk. She also remembered spending quite a lot of time with the grandparents. Whenever she asked Clement what a word meant he told her to look it up! She also remembered that he was a mediator with the Indians."

While Rose had a lot of stories about Clement, she did not often want to recount them to me (M.A.H), even though she knew that I was interested in family history. I had heard that story about looking up the word meanings. She also said that there were many books and magazines on the farm, as Clement was an inveterate reader and interested in world affairs. He was an early, if not an original, member of the National Geographic Society. He kept all of the issues and had large stacks of them. Unfortunately for his descendants, they were dispersed after his death.

Buried in Lot 48, west half, of the Linden Lutheran Cemetery. He was the original lot holder. The east half of the lot was transferred to Lillian (Mrs. Clifford) Botten in 1974. 37, 38, 38
Medical
Died from liver cancer diagnosed only one month before his death.
Medical Notes for Anna (Spouse 1)
Death certificate gives cause of death as myocarditis, suffered for 10 years, with contributory arterosclerosis, suffered for 20 years.
Misc. Notes
She was attending school at the time of the 1870 census.

Buried in Lot 48, west half, of the Linden Lutheran Cemetery.

Hanska Herald, 26 November 1937:

"A Native Pioneer of Linden Passes

Mrs. Clement Halvorson Laid to Rest Wednesday, At Age of 78 Years

The sad news was received by the people of this community Sunday, that Mrs. Clement Halvorson had passed away at her home in Linden, on Saturday evening, at 11 o'clock, from heart failure, after a three years illness.
Funeral services were held from the home at 1 o'clock Wednesday afternoon and 2 o'clock at the Linden Lutheran church. Rev. V. F. Larson officiating. She was carried to her last resting place by Henry I. Hanson, Wm. Jacobson, Henry A. Melzer, Albert G. Anderson, J. Sidney Helling, and George Paulson, pallbearers. Interment was made at the Linden Lutheran cemetery.
Anna Johanni was born on a farm in section 14 of Linden township, April 26, 1859, daughter of Johannes and Christina Johanni, natives of Switzerland, who came to the United States in 1854, locating in Wisconsin, where they lived until 1858, in which year they came to Minnesota, locating in Brown County, taking a homestead in Linden, and thus became numbered among the very earliest settlers of the township. Her father enlisted in the 5th [2nd, sic] Minnesota Cavalry for service during the Civil War, and did valiant service during the Indian uprising receiving his honorable discharge at Ft. Snelling.
She was united in marriage to Clement Halvorson on May 20th, 1879, and has made her home on the present farm in Linden until her death. Their home has been blessed with ten children, six daughters and four sons. They are:
John O. Halvorson, Raleigh, N.C.; Mrs. Theodore Laingen, Alfred Halvorson, Mrs. Samuel Harbo, Willard Halvorson, and Mrs. Ernest Asleson, Linden; Mmes. Vern Lewis and George Granewold [Gronewold, sic], Lewisville; Edward Halvorson, Bonetrail, No. Dak.; and Miss Lucille Halvorson, Minneapolis.
There are also 27 grandchildren, four great-grandchildren, as well as one brother, Ulrich Johanni, of Madelia.
Mrs. Halvorson was a good wife and mother, a faithful worker in the Linden Ladies Aid as well as a kind and helpful neighbor.
Those who attended the funeral from a distance were: Rose Laingen, Rochester, Minn, Mrs. Walter Rollof of Winona, Myrtle and Pearl Harbo, Sleepy Eye, Sylvia Harbo and Mr. and Mrs. Fred Christianson, New Ulm, Minn.
The Herald joins the community in extending sympathy to the mourning family."
Notes for Clement & Anna (Family)
They were married at Johannes Johanni's home in Linden by Rev. L. G. Green, with N. Halvorson and Isak Nilson acting as witnesses.
Last Modified 4 Apr 2012Created 4 Jul 2012 using Reunion for Macintosh